Handle analog and digital IO lines

All the XBee modules, regardless of the protocol they run, have a set of lines (pins). You can use these pins to connect sensors or actuators and configure them with specific behavior.

You can configure the IO lines of an XBee device to be digital input/output (DIO), analog to digital converter (ADC), or pulse-width modulation output (PWM). The configuration you provide to a line depends on the device where you want to connect.

Note

All the IO management features displayed in this topic and sub-topics are applicable for both local and remote XBee devices.

The XBee Python Library exposes an easy way to configure, read, and write the IO lines of the local and remote XBee devices through the following corresponding classes:

  • XBeeDevice for local devices.
  • RemoteXBeeDevice for remotes.

Configure the IO lines

All XBee device objects include a configuration method, set_io_configuration(), where you can specify the IO line being configured and the desired function being set.

For the IO line parameter, the API provides an enumerator called IOLine that helps you specify the desired IO line easily by functional name. This enumerator is used along all the IO related methods in the API.

The supported functions are also contained in an enumerator called IOMode. You can choose between the following functions:

  • DISABLED
  • SPECIAL_FUNCTIONALITY (Shouldn’t be used to configure IOs)
  • PWM
  • ADC
  • DIGITAL_IN
  • DIGITAL_OUT_LOW
  • DIGITAL_OUT_HIGH

Configure local or remote IO lines

[...]

# Instantiate an XBee device object.
local_xbee = XBeeDevice("COM1", 9600)
local_xbee.open()

# Instantiate a remote XBee device object.
remote_xbee = RemoteXBeeDevice(local_xbee, XBee64BitAddress.from_hex_string("0013A20012345678"))

# Configure the DIO1_AD1 line of the local device to be Digital output (set high by default).
local_xbee.set_io_configuration(IOLine.DIO1_AD1, IOMode.DIGITAL_OUT_HIGH)

# Configure the DIO2_AD2 line of the local device to be Digital input.
local_xbee.set_io_configuration(IOLine.DIO2_AD2, IOMode.DIGITAL_IN)

# Configure the DIO3_AD3 line of the remote device to be Analog input (ADC).
remote_xbee.set_io_configuration(IOLine.DIO3_AD3, IOMode.ADC)

# Configure the DIO10_PWM0 line of the remote device to be PWM output (PWM).
remote_xbee.set_io_configuration(IOLine.DIO10_PWM0, IOMode.PWM)

[...]

The set_io_configuration() method may fail for the following reasons:

  • ACK of the command sent is not received in the configured timeout, throwing a TimeoutException.
  • Other errors caught as XBeeException:
    • The operating mode of the device is not API_MODE or ESCAPED_API_MODE, throwing an InvalidOperatingModeException.
    • The response of the command is not valid, throwing an ATCommandException.
    • There is an error writing to the XBee interface, throwing a generic XBeeException.

You can read the current configuration of any IO line the same way an IO line can be configured with a desired function using the corresponding getter, get_io_configuration().

Get IO configuration

[...]

# Instantiate an XBee device object.
local_xbee = XBeeDevice("COM1", 9600)
local_xbee.open()

# Get the configuration mode of the DIO1_AD1 line.
io_mode = local_xbee.get_io_configuration(IOLine.DIO1_AD1)

[...]

The get_io_configuration() method may fail for the following reasons:

  • ACK of the command sent is not received in the configured timeout, throwing a TimeoutException.
  • Other errors caught as XBeeException:
    • The operating mode of the device is not API_MODE or ESCAPED_API_MODE, throwing an InvalidOperatingModeException.
    • The response of the command is not valid, throwing an ATCommandException.
    • There is an error writing to the XBee interface, throwing a generic XBeeException.

Digital Input/Output

If your IO line is configured as digital output, you can set its state (high/low) easily. All the XBee device classes provide the method, set_dio_value(), with the desired IOLine as the first parameter and an IOValue as the second. The IOValue enumerator includes HIGH and LOW as possible values.

Set digital output values

[...]

# Instantiate an XBee device object.
local_xbee = XBeeDevice("COM1", 9600)
local_xbee.open()

# Set the DIO2_AD2 line low.
local_xbee.set_dio_value(IOLine.DIO2_AD2, IOValue.LOW)

# Set the DIO2_AD2 line high.
local_xbee.set_dio_value(IOLine.DIO2_AD2, IOValue.HIGH)

[...]

The set_dio_value() method may fail for the following reasons:

  • ACK of the command sent is not received in the configured timeout, throwing a TimeoutException.
  • Other errors caught as XBeeException:
    • The operating mode of the device is not API_MODE or ESCAPED_API_MODE, throwing an InvalidOperatingModeException.
    • The response of the command is not valid, throwing an ATCommandException.
    • There is an error writing to the XBee interface, throwing a generic XBeeException.

You can also read the current status of the pin (high/low) by issuing the method get_dio_value(). The parameter of the method must be the IO line to be read.

Read digital input values

[...]

# Instantiate an XBee device object.
local_xbee = XBeeDevice("COM1", 9600)
local_xbee.open()

# Get the value of the DIO2_AD2.
value = local_xbee.get_dio_value(IOLine.DIO2_AD2)

[...]

The get_dio_value() method may fail for the following reasons:

  • ACK of the command sent is not received in the configured timeout, throwing a TimeoutException.
  • Other errors caught as XBeeException:
    • The operating mode of the device is not API_MODE or ESCAPED_API_MODE, throwing an InvalidOperatingModeException.
    • If the received response does not contain the value for the given IO line, throwing an OperationNotSupportedException. This can happen (for example) if you try to read the DIO value of an IO line that is not configured as DIO.
    • The response of the command is not valid, throwing an ATCommandException.
    • There is an error writing to the XBee interface, throwing a generic XBeeException.
Example: Handle DIO IO lines

The XBee Python Library includes two sample applications that demonstrate how to handle DIO lines in your local and remote XBee Devices. The examples are located in the following path:

examples/io/LocalDIOSample/LocalDIOSample.py

examples/io/RemoteDIOSample/RemoteDIOSample.py

ADC

When you configure an IO line as analog to digital converter (ADC), you can only read its value (counts) with get_adc_value(). In this case, the method used to read ADCs is different than the digital I/O method, but the parameter provided is the same: the IO line to read the value from.

Read ADC values

[...]

# Instantiate an XBee device object.
local_xbee = XBeeDevice("COM1", 9600)
local_xbee.open()

[...]

# Get the value of the DIO 3 (analog to digital converter).
value = local_xbee.get_adc_value(IOLine.DIO3_AD3)

[...]

The get_adc_value() method may fail for the following reasons:

  • ACK of the command sent is not received in the configured timeout, throwing a TimeoutException.
  • Other errors caught as XBeeException:
    • The operating mode of the device is not API_MODE or ESCAPED_API_MODE, throwing an InvalidOperatingModeException.
    • If the received response does not contain the value for the given IO line, throwing an OperationNotSupportedException. This can happen (for example) if you try to read the ADC value of an IO line that is not configured as ADC.
    • The response of the command is not valid, throwing an ATCommandException.
    • There is an error writing to the XBee interface, throwing a generic XBeeException.
Example: Handle ADC IO lines

The XBee Python Library includes two sample applications that demonstrate how to handle ADC lines in your local and remote XBee devices. The examples are located in the following path:

examples/io/LocalADCSample/LocalADCSample.py

examples/io/RemoteADCSample/RemoteADCSample.py

PWM

Not all the XBee protocols support pulse-width modulation (PWM) output handling, but the XBee Python Library provides functionality to manage them. When you configure an IO line as PWM output, you must use specific methods to set and read the duty cycle of the PWM.

For the set case, use the method set_pwm_duty_cycle() and provide the IO line configured as PWM and the value of the duty cycle in % of the PWM. The duty cycle is the proportion of ‘ON’ time to the regular interval or ‘period’ of time. A high duty cycle corresponds to high power, because the power is ON for most of the time. The percentage parameter of the set duty cycle method is a double, which allows you to be more precise in the configuration.

Set the duty cycle of an IO line configure as PWM

[...]

# Instantiate an XBee device object.
local_xbee = XBeeDevice("COM1", 9600)
local_xbee.open()

[...]

# Set a duty cycle of 75% to the DIO10_PWM0 line (PWM output).
local_xbee.set_pwm_duty_cycle(IOLine.DIO10_PWM0, 75)

[...]

The set_pwm_duty_cycle() method may fail for the following reasons:

  • ACK of the command sent is not received in the configured timeout, throwing a TimeoutException.
  • Other errors caught as XBeeException:
    • The operating mode of the device is not API_MODE or ESCAPED_API_MODE, throwing an InvalidOperatingModeException.
    • The response of the command is not valid, throwing an ATCommandException.
    • There is an error writing to the XBee interface, throwing a generic XBeeException.

The get_pwm_duty_cycle(IOLine) method of a PWM line returns a double value with the current duty cycle percentage of the PWM.

Get the duty cycle of an IO line configured as PWM

[...]

# Instantiate an XBee device object.
local_xbee = XBeeDevice("COM1", 9600)
local_xbee.open()

[...]

# Get the duty cycle of the DIO10_PWM0 line (PWM output).
duty_cycle = local_xbee.get_pwm_duty_cycle(IOLine.DIO10_PWM0);

[...]

Note

In both cases (get and set), the IO line provided must be PWM capable and must be configured as PWM output.

Read IO samples

XBee modules can monitor and sample the analog and digital IO lines. You can read IO samples locally or transmitted to a remote device to provide an indication of the current IO line states.

There are three ways to obtain IO samples on a local or remote device:

  • Queried sampling
  • Periodic sampling
  • Change detection sampling

The XBee Python Library represents an IO sample by the IOSample class, which contains:

  • Digital and analog channel masks that indicate which lines have sampling enabled.
  • Values of those enabled lines.

You must configure the IO lines you want to receive in the IO samples before enabling sampling.

Queried sampling

The XBee Python Library provides a method to read an IO sample that contains all enabled digital IO and analog input channels, read_io_sample(). The method returns an IOSample object.

Read an IO sample and getting the DIO value

[...]

# Instantiate an XBee device object.
local_xbee = XBeeDevice("COM1", 9600)
local_xbee.open()

[...]

# Read an IO sample from the device.
io_sample = local_xbee.read_io_sample()

# Select the desired IO line.
io_line = IOLine.DIO3_AD3

# Check if the IO sample contains the expected IO line and value.
if io_sample.has_digital_value(io_line):
    print("DIO3 value: %s" % io_sample.get_digital_value(ioLine))

[...]

The read_io_sample() method may fail for the following reasons:

  • ACK of the command sent is not received in the configured timeout, throwing a TimeoutException.
  • Other errors caught as XBeeException:
    • The operating mode of the device is not API_MODE or ESCAPED_API_MODE, throwing an InvalidOperatingModeException.
    • The response of the command is not valid, throwing an ATCommandException.
    • There is an error writing to the XBee interface, throwing a generic XBeeException.

Periodic sampling

Periodic sampling allows an XBee module to take an IO sample and transmit it to a remote device at a periodic rate. That remote device is defined in the destination address through the set_dest_address() method. The XBee Python Library provides the set_io_sampling_rate() method to configure the periodic sampling.

The XBee module samples and transmits all enabled digital IO and analog inputs to the remote device every X seconds. A sample rate of 0 s disables this feature.

Set the IO sampling rate

[...]

# Instantiate an XBee device object.
local_xbee = XBeeDevice("COM1", 9600)
local_xbee.open()

[...]

# Set the destination address.
local_xbee.set_dest_address(XBee64BitAddress.from_hex_string("0013A20040XXXXXX"))

# Set the IO sampling rate.
local_xbee.set_io_sampling_rate(5)  # 5 seconds.

[...]

The set_io_sampling_rate() method may fail for the following reasons:

  • ACK of the command sent is not received in the configured timeout, throwing a TimeoutException.
  • Other errors caught as XBeeException:
    • The operating mode of the device is not API_MODE or ESCAPED_API_MODE, throwing an InvalidOperatingModeException.
    • The response of the command is not valid, throwing an ATCommandException.
    • There is an error writing to the XBee interface, throwing a generic XBeeException.

You can also read this value using the get_io_sampling_rate() method. This method returns the IO sampling rate in milliseconds and ‘0’ when the feature is disabled.

Get the IO sampling rate

[...]

# Instantiate an XBee device object.
local_xbee = XBeeDevice("COM1", 9600)
local_xbee.open()

[...]

# Get the IO sampling rate.
value = local_xbee.get_io_sampling_rate()

[...]

The get_io_sampling_rate() method may fail for the following reasons:

  • ACK of the command sent is not received in the configured timeout, throwing a TimeoutException.
  • Other errors caught as XBeeException:
    • The operating mode of the device is not API_MODE or ESCAPED_API_MODE, throwing an InvalidOperatingModeException.
    • The response of the command is not valid, throwing an ATCommandException.
    • There is an error writing to the XBee interface, throwing a generic XBeeException.

Change detection sampling

You can configure modules to transmit a data sample immediately whenever a monitored digital IO pin changes state. The set_dio_change_detection() method establishes the set of digital IO lines that are monitored for change detection. A None set disables the change detection sampling.

As in the periodic sampling, change detection samples are transmitted to the configured destination address.

Note

This feature only monitors and samples digital IOs, so it is not valid for analog lines.

Set the DIO change detection

[...]

# Instantiate an XBee device object.
local_xbee = XBeeDevice("COM1", 9600)
local_xbee.open()

[...]

# Set the destination address.
local_xbee.set_dest_address(XBee64BitAddress.from_hex_string("0013A20040XXXXXX"))

# Create a set of IO lines to be monitored.
lines = [IOLine.DIO3_AD3, IOLine.DIO4_AD4]

# Enable the DIO change detection sampling.
local_xbee.set_dio_change_detection(lines)

[...]

The set_dio_change_detection() method may fail for the following reasons:

  • ACK of the command sent is not received in the configured timeout, throwing a TimeoutException.
  • Other errors caught as XBeeException:
    • The operating mode of the device is not API_MODE or ESCAPED_API_MODE, throwing an InvalidOperatingModeException.
    • The response of the command is not valid, throwing an ATCommandException.
    • There is an error writing to the XBee interface, throwing a generic XBeeException.

You can also get the lines that are monitored using the get_dio_change_detection() method. A None value indicates that this feature is disabled.

Get the DIO change detection

[...]

# Instantiate an XBee device object.
local_xbee = XBeeDevice("COM1", 9600)
local_xbee.open()

[...]

# Get the set of lines that are monitored.
lines = local_xbee.get_dio_change_detection()

[...]

The get_dio_change_detection() method may fail for the following reasons:

  • ACK of the command sent is not received in the configured timeout, throwing a TimeoutException.
  • Other errors caught as XBeeException:
    • The operating mode of the device is not API_MODE or ESCAPED_API_MODE, throwing an InvalidOperatingModeException.
    • The response of the command is not valid, throwing an ATCommandException.
    • There is an error writing to the XBee interface, throwing a generic XBeeException.

Register an IO sample listener

In addition to configuring an XBee device to monitor and sample the analog and digital IO lines, you must register a callback in the local device where you want to receive the IO samples. You are then notified when the device receives a new IO sample.

You must subscribe to the IO samples reception service by using the method add_io_sample_received_callback() with an IO sample reception callback function as parameter.

Add an IO sample callback

[...]

# Instantiate an XBee device object.
local_xbee = XBeeDevice("COM1", 9600)
local_xbee.open()

[...]

# Define the IO sample receive callback.
def io_sample_callback(io_sample, remote_xbee, send_time):
    print("IO sample received at time %s." % str(send_time))
    print("IO sample:")
    print(str(io_sample))

# Subscribe to IO samples reception.
local_xbee.add_io_sample_received_callback(io_sample_callback)

[...]

This callback function will receive three parameters when an IO sample receive event is raised:

  • The received IO sample as an IOSample object.
  • The remote XBee device that sent the IO sample as a RemoteXBeeDevice object.
  • The time in which the IO sample was received as an Float (calculated with Python standard time.time()).

To stop receiving notifications of new IO samples, remove the added callback using the del_io_sample_received_callback() method.

Remove an IO sample callback

[...]

# Instantiate an XBee device object.
local_xbee = XBeeDevice("COM1", 9600)
local_xbee.open()

[...]

# Define the IO sample receive callback.
def io_sample_callback(io_sample, remote_xbee, send_time):
    print("IO sample received at time %s." % str(send_time))
    print("IO sample:")
    print(str(io_sample))

# Subscribe to IO samples reception by adding the callback.
local_xbee.add_io_sample_received_callback(io_sample_callback)

[...]

# Unsubscribe from IO samples reception by removing the callback.
local_xbee.del_io_sample_received_callback(io_sample_callback)

[...]

The del_io_sample_received_callback() method will raise a ValueError if you try to delete a callback that you have not added yet.

Example: Receive IO samples

The XBee Python Library includes a sample application that demonstrates how to configure a remote device to monitor IO lines and receive the IO samples in the local device. The example is located in the following path:

examples/io/IOSamplingSample/IOSamplingSample.py